๐๐จ๐ฅ๐ฒ๐ž๐ญ๐ก๐ฒ๐ฅ๐ž๐ง๐ž ๐ค๐ข๐žฬ‚ฬ๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ฎฬ›ฬ๐œ ๐ฌ๐šฬ‚๐ฎ ๐ฏ๐žฬ‚ฬ€ ๐ญ๐ขฬ๐ง๐ก ๐œ๐ก๐šฬ‚ฬ๐ญ ๐ก๐จ๐šฬ ๐ก๐จฬฃ๐œ, ๐ฏ๐šฬฃฬ‚๐ญ ๐ฅ๐ฒฬ ๐œ๐šฬ‚ฬ๐ฎ ๐ญ๐ก๐šฬ€๐ง๐ก

Nแป™i dung bài viแบฟt

๐‘ป๐’Šฬ๐’๐’‰ ๐’„๐’‰๐’‚ฬ‚ฬ๐’• ๐’๐’‰๐’–ฬ›ฬฃ๐’‚ ๐’‘๐’๐’๐’š๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’š๐’๐’†๐’๐’† ๐’๐’‚ฬ€ ๐’ˆ๐’Šฬ€?

๐๐จ๐ฅ๐ฒ๐ž๐ญ๐ก๐ฒ๐ฅ๐ž๐ง๐ž ๐ค๐ข๐žฬ‚ฬ๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ฎฬ›ฬ๐œ ๐ฌ๐šฬ‚๐ฎ ๐ฏ๐žฬ‚ฬ€ ๐ญ๐ขฬ๐ง๐ก ๐œ๐ก๐šฬ‚ฬ๐ญ ๐ก๐จ๐šฬ ๐ก๐จฬฃ๐œ, ๐ฏ๐šฬฃฬ‚๐ญ ๐ฅ๐ฒฬ ๐œ๐šฬ‚ฬ๐ฎ ๐ญ๐ก๐šฬ€๐ง๐ก
๐๐จ๐ฅ๐ฒ๐ž๐ญ๐ก๐ฒ๐ฅ๐ž๐ง๐ž ๐ค๐ข๐žฬ‚ฬ๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ฎฬ›ฬ๐œ ๐ฌ๐šฬ‚๐ฎ ๐ฏ๐žฬ‚ฬ€ ๐ญ๐ขฬ๐ง๐ก ๐œ๐ก๐šฬ‚ฬ๐ญ ๐ก๐จ๐šฬ ๐ก๐จฬฃ๐œ, ๐ฏ๐šฬฃฬ‚๐ญ ๐ฅ๐ฒฬ ๐œ๐šฬ‚ฬ๐ฎ ๐ญ๐ก๐šฬ€๐ง๐ก
Nhแปฑa PE cรณ mร u trแบฏng, hฦกi trong, khรดng dแบซn ฤ‘iแป‡n vร  nhiแป‡t, khรดng thแบฅm nฦฐแป›c vร  khรญ.
Nhแปฑa PE cรณ tรญnh chแบฅt hรณa hแปc giแป‘ng nhฦฐ hydrocacbon khรดng no: Khรดng tรกc dแปฅng vแป›i dung dแป‹ch axit, kiแปm, thuแป‘c tรญm vร  nฦฐแป›c brom.
Polyethylene lร  gรฌ vร  kiแบฟn thแปฉc sรขu vแป tรญnh chแบฅt hoรก hแปc, vแบญt lรฝ cแบฅu thร nh
Nแบฟu แปŸ nhiแป‡t ฤ‘แป™ 70 ฤ‘แป™ C, nhแปฑa PE hรฒa tan kรฉm แปŸ cรกc dung mรดi nhฦฐ toluen, xilen, dแบงu thรดng, dแบงu thoรกng,โ€ฆ
Khi แปŸ nhiแป‡t ฤ‘แป™ cao, nhแปฑa PE khรดng thแปƒ hรฒa tan trong nฦฐแป›c, rฦฐแปฃu bรฉo, aceton,โ€ฆ
Trong thแปi gian ngแบฏn, nhแปฑa PE chแป‹u ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc nhiแป‡t ฤ‘แป™ lรชn ฤ‘แบฟn 230 ฤ‘แป™ C.
Nhแปฑa sแบฝ bแป‹ cฤƒng phแป“ng vร  hฦฐ hแปng khi tiแบฟp xรบc vแป›i tinh dแบงu thฦกm hoแบทc cรกc chแบฅt tแบฉy nhฦฐ Alcool, Aceton,โ€ฆ

๐‘ด๐’ฬฃฬ‚๐’• ๐’”๐’ฬ‚ฬ ๐’•๐’Šฬ๐’๐’‰ ๐’„๐’‰๐’‚ฬ‚ฬ๐’• ๐’„๐’–ฬ‰๐’‚ ๐‘ท๐‘ฌ

Polyethylene (nhแปฑa PE) cรณ ฤ‘แป™ bแปn, vร  ฤ‘แป™ cแปฉng thแบฅp, nhฦฐng cรณ ฤ‘แป™ dแบปo dai cao vร  chแป‹u va ฤ‘แบญp cลฉng nhฦฐ ma sรกt thแบฅp.

๐˜›๐˜ชฬ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ขฬ‚ฬ๐˜ต ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฆฬฃฬ‚๐˜ต ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜บ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜บ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ

Tรญnh hแปฏu รญch cแปงa Polyethylene (nhแปฑa PE) bแป‹ giแป›i hแบกn bแปŸi ฤ‘iแปƒm nรณng chแบฃy cแปงa nรณ lร  80 ยฐ C (176 ยฐ F) (HDPE, cรกc loแบกi tinh thแปƒ thแบฅp lร m mแปm trฦฐแป›c ฤ‘รณ). ฤแป‘i vแป›i cรกc loแบกi thฦฐฦกng mแบกi phแป• biแบฟn cแปงa polyethylene trแปng lฦฐแปฃng trung bรฌnh vร  cao, ฤ‘iแปƒm nรณng chแบฃy thฦฐแปng nแบฑm trong khoแบฃng 120 ฤ‘แบฟn 180 ยฐ C (248-356 ยฐ F). ฤiแปƒm nรณng chแบฃy cho polyethylene thฦฐฦกng mแบกi, mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ trung bรฌnh, bรฌnh thฦฐแปng lร  105 ฤ‘แบฟn 115 ยฐ C (221-279 ยฐ F). Nhiแป‡t ฤ‘แป™ nร y khรกc nhau rแบฅt nhiแปu vแป›i loแบกi polyethylene.

๐‘ป๐’Šฬ๐’๐’‰ ๐’„๐’‰๐’‚ฬ‚ฬ๐’• ๐’‰๐’ฬ๐’‚ ๐’‰๐’ฬฃ๐’„ ๐’‘๐’๐’๐’š๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’š๐’๐’†๐’

Polyethylene (nhแปฑa PE) bao gแป“m hydrocarbon khรดng phรขn cแปฑc, bรฃo hรฒa, cรณ trแปng lฦฐแปฃng phรขn tแปญ cao. Do ฤ‘รณ, hร nh vi hรณa hแปc cแปงa nรณ cลฉng tฦฐฦกng tแปฑ nhฦฐ parafin. Cรกc ฤ‘แบกi phรขn tแปญ khรดng liรชn kแบฟt cแป™ng hรณa trแป‹. BแปŸi vรฌ cแบฅu trรบc phรขn tแปญ ฤ‘แป‘i xแปฉng cแปงa chรบng, chรบng cรณ xu hฦฐแป›ng kแบฟt tinh; tแป•ng thแปƒ polyethylene lร  mแป™t phแบงn tinh thแปƒ. ฤแป™ tinh thแปƒ cao lร m tฤƒng mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ vร  sแปฑ แป•n ฤ‘แป‹nh cฦก hแปc vร  hรณa hแปc.

๐˜›๐˜ชฬ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ขฬ‚ฬ๐˜ต ฤ‘๐˜ช๐˜ฆฬฃฬ‚๐˜ฏ

Polyethylene (nhแปฑa PE) lร  chแบฅt cรกch ฤ‘iแป‡n tแป‘t. Nรณ cung cแบฅp khแบฃ nฤƒng theo dรตi tแป‘t; tuy nhiรชn, nรณ trแปŸ nรชn dแป… dร ng tรญnh ฤ‘iแป‡n tรญch (cรณ thแปƒ ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc giแบฃm bแบฑng cรกch thรชm graphite, cacbon ฤ‘en hoแบทc cรกc chแบฅt chแป‘ng tฤฉnh ฤ‘iแป‡n).

๐˜›๐˜ชฬ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ขฬ‚ฬ๐˜ต ๐˜ฒ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐฬฃ๐˜ค

Tรนy thuแป™c vร o lแป‹ch sแปญ nhiแป‡t vร  ฤ‘แป™ dร y cแปงa mร ng PE cรณ thแปƒ thay ฤ‘แป•i giแปฏa gแบงn nhฦฐ rรต rร ng ( trong suแป‘t ), milky-ฤ‘แปฅc ( mแป ) hoแบทc ฤ‘แปฅc . LDPE do ฤ‘รณ sแปŸ hแปฏu LLDPE lแป›n nhแบฅt, LLDPE รญt hฦกn vร  HDPE รญt minh bแบกch nhแบฅt. ฤแป™ trong suแป‘t ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc giแบฃm bแปŸi cรกc tinh thแปƒ nแบฟu chรบng lแป›n hฦกn bฦฐแป›c sรณng cแปงa รกnh sรกng khแบฃ kiแบฟn.

๐‘ท๐’‰๐’‚ฬ‚๐’ ๐’๐’๐’‚ฬฃ๐’Š ๐‘ท๐’๐’๐’š๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’š๐’๐’†๐’๐’† (๐’๐’‰๐’–ฬ›ฬฃ๐’‚ ๐‘ท๐‘ฌ)

ฤแบฟn ฤ‘รขy chรบng ta sแบฝ biแบฟt ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc sแปฑ khรกc nhau cแปงa nhแปฑa HDPE, MDPE, LDPE, PE vร  rแบฅt mแป™t sแป‘ loแบกi khรกc. Polyethylene ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc phรขn loแบกi theo mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ vร  phรขn nhรกnh . Cรกc tรญnh chแบฅt cฦก hแปc cแปงa nรณ phแปฅ thuแป™c ฤ‘รกng kแปƒ vร o cรกc biแบฟn nhฦฐ phแบกm vi vร  loแบกi phรขn nhรกnh, cแบฅu trรบc tinh thแปƒ, vร  trแปng lฦฐแปฃng phรขn tแปญ. Cรณ mแป™t sแป‘ loแบกi polyethylene:
  • Polyethylene cรณ trแปng lฦฐแปฃng phรขn tแปญ cแปฑc cao (UHMWPE)
  • Polyethylene trแปng lฦฐแปฃng phรขn tแปญ cแปฑc thแบฅp (ULMWPE hoแบทc PE-WAX)\
  • Polyethylene cรณ trแปng lฦฐแปฃng phรขn tแปญ cao (HMWPE)
  • Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ cao (HDPE)
  • Polyethylene ฤ‘แป™ dร y mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ cao (HDXLPE)
  • Polyethylene liรชn kแบฟt chรฉo (PEX hoแบทc XLPE)
  • Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ trung bรฌnh (MDPE)
  • Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ thแบฅp tuyแบฟn tรญnh (LLDPE)
  • Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ thแบฅp (LDPE)
  • Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ rแบฅt thแบฅp (VLDPE)
  • Polyethylene clo (CPE)

๐‘ท๐’๐’๐’š๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’š๐’๐’†๐’๐’† ๐’Ž๐’‚ฬฃฬ‚๐’• ฤ‘๐’ฬฃฬ‚ ๐’•๐’‰๐’‚ฬ‚ฬ๐’‘ ( ๐‘ณ๐‘ซ๐‘ท๐‘ฌ )

Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ thแบฅp ( LDPE ) lร  chแบฅt dแบปo nhiแป‡t dแบปo lร m tแปซ ethylene monomer . ฤรขy lร  lแป›p polyetylen ฤ‘แบงu tiรชn cแปงa Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) sแบฃn xuแบฅt nฤƒm 1933 sแปญ dแปฅng quy trรฌnh รกp suแบฅt cao thรดng qua phแบฃn แปฉng trรนng hแปฃp tแปฑ do. Viแป‡c sแบฃn xuแบฅt cแปงa nรณ sแปญ dแปฅng phฦฐฦกng phรกp tฦฐฦกng tแปฑ ngร y nay.
LDPE ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc xรกc ฤ‘แป‹nh bแปŸi mแป™t khoแบฃng mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ 0.910-0.940 g / cm3. Nรณ khรดng phแบฃn แปฉng แปŸ nhiแป‡t ฤ‘แป™ phรฒng, ngoแบกi trแปซ cรกc chแบฅt oxy hรณa mแบกnh, vร  mแป™t sแป‘ dung mรดi gรขy sฦฐng. Nรณ cรณ thแปƒ chแป‹u ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc nhiแป‡t ฤ‘แป™ 80 ยฐ C liรชn tแปฅc vร  95 ยฐ C trong mแป™t thแปi gian ngแบฏn. ฤฦฐแปฃc lร m bแบฑng cรกc biแบฟn thแปƒ mแป hoแบทc mแป ฤ‘แปฅc, nรณ khรก linh hoแบกt vร  cแปฉng rแบฏn.
LDPE cรณ nhiแปu phรขn nhรกnh hฦกn (khoแบฃng 2% cรกc nguyรชn tแปญ cacbon) so vแป›i HDPE , do ฤ‘รณ cรกc lแปฑc liรชn phรขn tแปญ cแปงa nรณ ( sแปฑ thu hรบt lฦฐแปกng cแปฑc-lฦฐแปกng cแปฑc ) lร  yแบฟu, sแปฉc cฤƒng cแปงa nรณ thแบฅp hฦกn, vร  khแบฃ nฤƒng chแป‘ng chแป‹u cแปงa nรณ cao hฦกn. Ngoร i ra, bแปŸi vรฌ cรกc phรขn tแปญ cแปงa nรณ khรดng ฤ‘รณng gรณi chแบทt chแบฝ vร  รญt tinh thแปƒ hฦกn do cรกc nhรกnh bรชn, mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ cแปงa nรณ thแบฅp hฦกn.

๐‘ฒ๐’‰๐’‚ฬ๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‰๐’ฬ๐’‚ ๐’„๐’‰๐’‚ฬ‚ฬ๐’• ๐’‘๐’๐’๐’š๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’š๐’๐’†๐’๐’† ๐’๐’‚ฬ€ ๐’ˆ๐’Šฬ€?

LDPE cรณ ฤ‘แป™ bแปn tuyแป‡t vแปi (khรดng bแป‹ tแบฅn cรดng / khรดng phแบฃn แปฉng hรณa hแปc) vแป›i cรกc axit loรฃng vร  cรด ฤ‘แบทc, cรกc cแป“n , bazฦก vร  este
Tรญnh khรกng tแป‘t (tแบฅn cรดng nhแบน / phแบฃn แปฉng hรณa hแปc rแบฅt thแบฅp) vแป›i aldehyde , xeton vร  dแบงu thแปฑc vแบญt
Khแบฃ nฤƒng chแป‹u hแบกn (phแบฃn แปฉng trung bรฌnh / phแบฃn แปฉng hรณa hแปc ฤ‘รกng kแปƒ, chแป‰ thรญch hแปฃp cho viแป‡c sแปญ dแปฅng ngแบฏn hแบกn) ฤ‘แป‘i vแป›i cรกc hydrocarbon cรณ nhiแปu chแบฅt bรฉo vร  thฦกm, dแบงu khoรกng, vร  cรกc chแบฅt oxy hรณa
Sแปฉc ฤ‘แป khรกng kรฉm vร  khรดng ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc khuyแบฟn cรกo sแปญ dแปฅng vแป›i hydrocarbon halogen hรณa.
LDPE ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc sแปญ dแปฅng rแป™ng rรฃi ฤ‘แปƒ sแบฃn xuแบฅt cรกc loแบกi bao bรฌ chแปฉa khรกc nhau, chai rแปญa, แป‘ng, tรบi nhแปฑa, vร  cรกc thiแบฟt bแป‹ phรฒng thรญ nghiแป‡m khรกc nhau. Sแปญ dแปฅng phแป• biแบฟn nhแบฅt cแปงa nรณ lร  trong lร m tรบi nhแปฑa.

๐‘ท๐’๐’๐’š๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’š๐’๐’†๐’๐’† ๐’Ž๐’‚ฬฃฬ‚๐’• ฤ‘๐’ฬฃฬ‚ ๐’•๐’“๐’–๐’๐’ˆ ๐’ƒ๐’Šฬ€๐’๐’‰ ๐‘ด๐‘ซ๐‘ท๐‘ฌ

Polyethylene mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ trung bรฌnh ( MDPE ) lร  mแป™t loแบกi polyethylene ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc xรกc ฤ‘แป‹nh bแปŸi mแป™t mแบญt ฤ‘แป™ khoแบฃng 0.926-0.940 g / cm 3. Nรณ รญt dร y ฤ‘แบทc hฦกn HDPE , ฤ‘iแปu nร y phแป• biแบฟn hฦกn.
MDPE cรณ thแปƒ ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc sแบฃn xuแบฅt bแบฑng cรกc chแบฅt xรบc tรกc crom / silic, cรกc chแบฅt xรบc tรกc Ziegler-Natta hoแบทc cรกc chแบฅt xรบc tรกc metallocen . MDPE cรณ tรญnh chแป‘ng sแป‘c vร  chแป‘ng giแปt tแป‘t. Nรณ cลฉng รญt nhแบกy hฦกn HDPE. Khแบฃ nฤƒng chแป‹u nแปฉt แปฉng suแบฅt tแป‘t hฦกn so vแป›i
HDPE. MDPE thฦฐแปng ฤ‘ฦฐแปฃc sแปญ dแปฅng trong แป‘ng dแบซn khรญ vร  phแปฅ kiแป‡n, bao tแบฃi, phim thu nhแป, bao bรฌ, tรบi vแบญn chuyแปƒn, vร  vรญtโ€ฆ

Nhแบญn xรฉt bร i viแบฟt!